The Ministry of Healthcare (Minzdrav) is the federal executive body responsible for drafting and implementing government policy and legal regulation in the area of healthcare, mandatory health insurance, the production and distribution of pharmaceuticals for medical use, including disease prevention measures (such as AIDS and other infections), medical treatment, rehabilitation and appraisals (excluding medical-social and military medical appraisals), pharmaceuticals activities such as ensuring the quality, efficacy and safety of pharmaceuticals for medical use, the production and distribution of medical products, sanitary and epidemiologic welfare of the population, medical and sanitary support for people employed in industries with dangerous working conditions, the medical-biological assessment of the health hazards associated with hazardous physical or chemical factors, the resort and recreation industry, as well as the management of state property and provision of state services related to healthcare, such as medical services, the introduction of modern medical technology, new disease prevention methods, diagnostics, treatment and rehabilitation methods, forensic tests and psychiatric appraisals, organisation of associate, university level, postgraduate and additional medical and pharmaceutical education, and resort and rehabilitation services.

The Healthcare Ministry coordinates and oversees the operation of its subordinated services and agencies, including: the Federal Supervision Service for Healthcare, the Federal Medical-Biological Agency, federal state institutions and unitary enterprises; and coordinates the work of the Federal Mandatory Health Insurance Fund.